Blockchain Technology: A Guide for Beginners

Blockchain know-how remains to be a thriller to a majority of individuals. Some discover it thrilling, and a few discover it intimidating, whereas others don’t have a clue about it 😊

And I get that because it’s nonetheless within the early growth stage, and there’s a lot to study and implement.

This text goals to introduce you to the fundamentals of blockchain know-how, the way it works, and its software.

For starters, think about how straightforward life can change into if you happen to may ship cash to your loved ones, staying 1000’s of miles away, in minutes with out paying hefty banking charges.

Now, take into consideration having full management of your cash with out requiring any permission out of your financial institution to view or switch it. And you may retailer your cash digitally in a pockets and not using a financial institution governing it.

All of those should not goals; they’re potential with blockchain that provides lots of capabilities and benefits. That is the rationale why persons are inquisitive about studying blockchain and embracing it. It’s additionally estimated that company funding in blockchain is more likely to attain US$12.4 billion by 2022.

However what precisely is blockchain?

Let’s discover out!

What Is Blockchain Know-how?

Blockchain is an immutable (unchangeable) and shared digital ledger that shops data or transactions in a number of locations on a community of computer systems. Right here, every verified transaction is added in an area referred to as a block that hyperlinks with different subsequent blocks with the assistance of cryptography, forming a series.

If that definition made you scratch your head, let’s perceive blockchain know-how in easier phrases.

Blockchain is a sort of database that shops knowledge (data) on a pc electronically.

Block = An area that comprises data

Chain = A hyperlink connecting data

So, a series of linked blocks containing data is named a blockchain.

All blockchains are databases, however not all databases are blockchains. The distinction between a database and blockchain is how they retailer knowledge.

Blockchain vs. Database

A database collects an unlimited quantity of data and arranges it in a tabular format to permit customers to switch knowledge simply and concurrently. Additionally, extra in depth databases use servers with highly effective computer systems to deal with huge knowledge and carry out computation. An organization or a person typically owns a database; therefore, they management and handle its entry.

However, blockchain collects knowledge in teams or blocks with a particular storage capability. When a block’s capability is crammed, it attaches to a different block, forming a series. All the brand new data following the following, newly added block are compiled into the brand new block.

Not like a standard database, a blockchain doesn’t have a single proprietor; as a substitute, it’s accessible to everybody with permission. For this reason it’s additionally referred to as a decentralized system, as there’s no central hub to regulate the blockchain. Equally, blockchain know-how is named Distributed Ledger Know-how (DLT). It’s a distributed ledger of data and permits customers to share knowledge or carry out transactions peer-to-peer with no central authority.

Blockchain know-how was invented by an unknown entity – Satoshi Nakamoto (a person or a bunch of people in 2008) as a public bitcoin transaction ledger. It goals to timestamp a digital doc and guarantee nobody can tamper with it. It helps to unravel the problems associated to double data and carry out safe transactions of belongings with out involving a third-party middleman corresponding to the federal government or financial institution.

This know-how works on the web and contains completely different elements like databases, linked computer systems or nodes, software program purposes, and extra.

Instance: An organization can leverage blockchain know-how in its bookkeeping to report all transactions. Bookkeeping entails double-entry accounting for transactions that may be complicated and tough to confirm data by different events. These data are additionally simple to tamper with, like edit, delete, or add a brand new report; therefore, they is probably not correct.

That is the place blockchain may also help them by securing transactions with the assistance of cryptography. It presents a tamper-proof method of storing transactions in blocks.

What Are the Parts of Blockchain?

The blockchain structure contains numerous layers, corresponding to infrastructure or {hardware}, knowledge, networking like nodes, verification, info distribution, and purposes. Let’s perceive a few of its elements.


As defined above, blockchain refers to a series of various blocks that include knowledge or data. And the info in every block relies on the sort of blockchain. For instance, a banking blockchain may have blocks containing info corresponding to account quantity, account holder’s title, department title, and so on.

The primary block in a blockchain is named the Genesis block, and all of the blocks include legitimate data encoded and hashed. Every block has a cryptographic hash of its personal and that of the earlier block in the identical blockchain, linking them and forming a series. This iterative course of validates the earlier blocks’ integrity with digital signatures.


A hash is sort of a fingerprint distinctive to each block. It’s a code created utilizing a mathematical operate turning digital knowledge into a protracted string of letters and numbers. This 64-digit hexadecimal quantity identifies every block and its content material, and as soon as it’s created, any modifications within the block will change the hash. Blockchain know-how makes use of Safe Hash Algorithm (SHA) 256 hashing and is very helpful to detect any change made within the transactions. It additionally makes it safe as all of the blocks include the hashes of the earlier block.

So, if an attacker adjustments knowledge in a block, its hash adjustments whereas the following block nonetheless has the previous hash of the compromised block. Therefore, all of the succeeding blocks change into invalid that may simply be tracked.


Belongings might be tangible or intangible. Tangible belongings are bodily objects corresponding to land, home, tools, and so on., whereas intangible belongings are non-physical objects corresponding to mental property contracts, copyrights, patents, and so on. Curiously, cash might be each tangible and intangible.

Distributed Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Community

Each transaction in a blockchain works in a distributed Peer-to-Peer (P2P) community that has no central authority to regulate knowledge. It permits everybody (having entry) to affix the blockchain, and each pc added to the community is a node.

So, when a consumer creates a brand new block, it goes to every consumer on the community, and every node should confirm this new block to make sure nobody has altered it. When the verification is full, every node begins including the brand new block on to their blockchain.

All of the nodes current within the community make a consensus, confirming the validity of blocks and rejecting the tampered ones.

Varieties of Blockchains

Blockchain is of various sorts, and customers leverage this know-how for a lot of use instances relying upon its kind. So, various kinds of blockchains are:

Public Blockchains

Blockchains facilitate a decentralized, open community of a number of computer systems that anybody can entry to request or confirm a transaction for accuracy. It permits customers to create new blocks, entry all of the blocks within the blockchain, and validate the info.

As they’re open and wish wonderful safety, they use ideas like proof of stake or proof of labor. The block miners who validate transactions are rewarded financially. Public blockchains are primarily used for mining and exchanging cryptocurrencies.

Examples: Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum blockchains.

Non-public Blockchains

Non-public blockchains are centralized and ruled by an individual or group that decides who can entry the blockchain, be added as a node, and confirm data. Not like public blockchains, non-public blockchains aren’t open and provide entry restrictions. If anybody needs to affix a non-public blockchain, they need to get hold of permission from the administrator.

Instance: B2B digital forex exchanges like Hyperledger.

Consortium Blockchains

A gaggle of firms or organizations govern these permissioned blockchains as a substitute of 1 particular person. They’re extra decentralized than a non-public blockchain to take pleasure in extra safety. It permits restricted entry and the current nodes decide the consensus course of.

Moreover, it constitutes a validator node to provoke, obtain, and confirm transactions whereas member nodes have permission to provoke or settle for transactions. Right here, customers can switch digital belongings from one blockchain to a different with improved effectivity and scalability.

Instance: Consortium blockchains are utilized in funds and banking, corresponding to Quorum and Corda.

Hybrid Blockchain

Hybrid blockchains mix the attributes of personal and public blockchains. They are often centralized or decentralized and permit organizations to arrange a permission-based non-public blockchain together with a public blockchain. Thus, the organizations can management the info entry within the blockchain and what knowledge to entry publicly.

Instance: It’s utilized in actual property and retail industries, corresponding to IBM Meals Belief.

How Does A Blockchain Transaction Work?

That is how a typical transaction happens in a blockchain:

Step 1: Transaction request

First, a person requests a transaction involving actual property, banking, cryptocurrency, data, contracts, and so on.

Step 2: Distribution

The transaction requested will get broadcasted within the peer-to-peer community by nodes positioned throughout the globe.

Step 3: Validation

The nodes within the community validate the transaction utilizing algorithms and fixing advanced equations. In the event that they discover the transaction legit, the data are entered inside blocks.

Step 4: Including blocks to the blockchain

After the transaction completes, the newly created block is chained with the earlier block with cryptography and encryption. It has a hash code and comprises the hash code of the earlier block. As soon as this block has crammed its allotted area, the following block begins filling and attaching to the earlier block; therefore a protracted chain of transactions is fashioned. That is immutable and clear for everybody within the blockchain.

How Does Blockchain Guarantee Transaction Safety?

Blockchain has numerous strategies to make sure a transaction’s safety, corresponding to cryptography, hashing, proof of labor, and so on. A few of the safety strategies are as follows:


Immutability in blockchain means nobody can manipulate knowledge entered within the blockchain. It’s as a result of each block has a singular hash code and one other referencing the earlier block. The cryptographic hash codes should not reverse-engineered. In case a transaction knowledge has an error, you’ll be able to enter a brand new report for correction. On this case, it is going to present each the data. Therefore, there’s no likelihood of errors or double-entry.

Chronological Construction

Each block in a blockchain is saved in chronological and linear order, that means they at all times connect on the finish of a blockchain. And every block has a hash and the hash of the earlier one. This vogue is adopted all through the blockchain which will include 1000’s of blocks. Therefore, it’s difficult to retreat all the way in which again to alter the data.

Even when somebody manages to change a block, they must do it for all the opposite blocks, which takes appreciable effort, assets, computational energy, and time. This provides customers time to confirm the block and discover whether it is compromised. The price of such a hack could possibly be prohibitive, and more often than not, unfruitful.

Proof of Work (PoW)

Though hashing is a wonderful approach to mitigate tampering, attackers can nonetheless hack a blockchain utilizing highly effective computer systems to alter a block and recalculate succeeding blocks, and make the complete blockchain legitimate.

To counteract this, blockchain makes use of Proof of Work, a mechanism to decelerate new block creation. It’s a piece of advanced computation that takes some effort to unravel. And it additionally takes extra time to unravel the issue than verifying the outcomes. Therefore, calculating the proof of labor and including a brand new block turns into far more difficult than altering the block and the remainder of the blocks after it. That is how proof of labor makes blockchains safe.

Many occasions, folks confuse PoW and PoS, in order that they shortly perceive it.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

Proof of Stake makes use of cryptographic algorithms to validate transactions. For instance, in mining, validation is completed by a particular validator relying upon the variety of cash they occupy, which is named their stake.

Customers don’t technically mine or get rewarded however forge blocks. Members within the course of acquire cash, and people with extra stake, have better mining energy. It will increase their likelihood of getting chosen because the validator.

Benefits and Limitations of Blockchain

Benefits 👍

The advantages of blockchain are:


All of the transactions are validated by 1000’s of nodes on a blockchain community. It’s highly effective sufficient to remove errors and supply better knowledge accuracy. Even when a mistake is made, different computer systems can spot it shortly. And if this error is to prevail, a minimal of 51% of complete computer systems within the community must make the identical mistake, which is sort of inconceivable, particularly when a large blockchain like Bitcoin is concerned.


No central hub controls or manages a blockchain; as a substitute, it’s decentralized. It means a community of 1000’s of computer systems can entry it with no single individual or group to control it. Any change within the blockchain instantly displays on every node with permission within the community.


Blockchain doesn’t contain any third celebration to approve a transaction together with their processing prices. For instance, banks or cost processors cost a small quantity to course of a transaction. Thus, companies performing cost transactions utilizing blockchain know-how corresponding to Bitcoin can save lots of prices.


Conventional banking methods take lots of time to course of the cost, from its initiation to when the quantity displays in your account. As well as, monetary establishments are operable solely throughout their specified enterprise hours and days. So, it could take days to mirror the quantity in your financial institution lastly. However, blockchain is unstoppable. It’s lively 24/7/365, and transactions can take a couple of minutes to finish. It is usually extremely helpful for worldwide funds.


All of the data are immutable or unchangeable on a blockchain because of the dependable encryption mechanism, cryptographic hashing, and chronological chaining of blocks. So, it’s not potential to switch or delete knowledge.


As soon as a transaction is added to a blockchain, 1000’s of highly effective computer systems confirm the report’s authenticity earlier than including it to a block. Blockchain know-how makes use of advanced calculations and algorithms for validation and assigns a singular hash to every block for identification.

And even when an attacker adjustments one thing, it instantly turns into seen to all of the nodes, which might establish the error and render the block invalid and the blocks following it. Therefore, it presents a excessive stage of safety.


With no central authority, most blockchains, like public blockchains, are open-source software program. It permits everybody to entry the code and auditors to evaluate for safety. Anybody within the community can counsel upgrades or adjustments, and if nearly all of customers agree, it may be accepted. This manner, blockchain presents larger transparency than conventional methods. As well as, you too can keep nameless to guard your privateness.

Limitations 👎

Unlawful actions

Blockchain attracts a number of unlawful actions and buying and selling regardless of providing safety and privateness to customers. There are various instances of theft and breaches associated to blockchain-based currencies and companies.

Environmental issues

Blockchain networks corresponding to Bitcoin eat huge electrical energy to mine and validate transactions, which impacts the setting.

Scalability points

Though blockchains are sooner than conventional monetary establishments, scalability remains to be a difficulty. They’re powerful to scale globally and will trigger inefficiencies in doing so. Nevertheless, new developments are surfacing as of late to enhance scalability, like Ethereum’s Revolutionary Layer 2 (L2).

Nevertheless, many nonetheless argue the professionals of blockchain overshadow the cons, and therefore, blockchain is seeing elevated adoption globally in numerous purposes and industries.

Blockchain vs. Bitcoin

There’s lots of confusion and misconceptions relating to blockchain. Many confuse blockchain with bitcoin, considering they’re the identical.

Properly, they’re undoubtedly not the identical!

Blockchain is a know-how, whereas bitcoin is an software of blockchain. Blockchain permits recording and distribution of knowledge however doesn’t enable modifying, making it safe for Bitcoin and different FinTech companies.

Speaking about Bitcoin, it’s a digital forex (cryptocurrency) constructed on blockchain know-how. It’s a peer-to-peer system and not using a third celebration or governing physique and makes use of blockchain to retailer a ledger of transactions (or funds). At current, mining Bitcoins and administrating transactions are carried out within the community collectively.

World’s largest cryptocurrency, Bitcoin (BTC), has a public and open-source ledger. It lets you ship and obtain Bitcoin funds with no financial institution concerned or paying charges to them.

Makes use of of Blockchain

Blockchain is now spreading in numerous business verticals to supply them the advantages of safety, transparency, privateness, and lots of extra. Main firms which have already adopted blockchain are IBM, Siemens, Walmart, and extra.

Let’s have a look at among the makes use of of blockchain.


Bitcoin is just not the one cryptocurrency on the market. Cryptocurrencies are digital currencies that use sturdy cryptography to retailer transaction data securely in a ledger (blockchain). A government doesn’t difficulty it, and its management is decentralized.

There are various different cryptocurrencies apart from Bitcoin, corresponding to Ethereum (ETH), Litecoin (LTC), Namecoin (NME), Dogecoin (DOGE), Ripple (XRP), TRON (TRX), and extra.

Good Contracts

Good contracts are digital, blockchain-based proposed contracts. They are often enforced or executed with out involving human interplay. It eliminates the necessity for an middleman between two contracting events; the blockchain takes care of it. Consequently, it presents transaction automation and reduces friction between events.

Banking and Finance

Some banks like UBS are inquisitive about implementing blockchain attributable to its sooner transaction pace and lowered prices. As well as, tokenization of varied shares is going on, and new monetary companies like Preliminary Coin Choices (ICOs) and Safety Token Choices (STOs) are additionally surfacing. These companies may also help tokenize tangible belongings like actual property.

Provide Chain

Blockchain is being carried out in provide chain areas corresponding to meals provide, furnishings, software program growth, and mining treasured commodities like diamonds.


In keeping with The Wall Road Journal, Ernst & Younger was utilizing blockchain to help governments, airways, employers, and others in monitoring folks resistant to the coronavirus and people who have undergone antibody checks. China additionally used blockchain to speed up medical health insurance transactions.

Different makes use of: Blockchain can be utilized in video video games like CryptoKitties, P2P power buying and selling, domains, and verification of paperwork, shipments, and merchandise.

Historical past of Blockchain

Blockchain is a brand new know-how, however some components of this idea have existed for a very long time. Sure notable occasions resulted within the basis of blockchain know-how. Allow us to get a short timeline of such important occasions.

blockchain history


  • Bitcoin, which is a peer-to-peer digital money system, was revealed by Satoshi Nakamoto.


  • There was a primary profitable Bitcoin (BTC) transaction between Satoshi Nakamoto and pc scientist Hal Finney.


  • Laszlo Hanycez, a Florida-based programmer, accomplished the primary official buy by the usage of Bitcoin. He bought two Papa John’s Pizzas by transferring 10,000 BTC’s price $60 at the moment. Presently, they’re price $438 million.
  • Presently, the official market cap of Bitcoin is $830 billion.


  • A number of organizations like Wikileaks, Digital Frontier Basis, and lots of others began accepting Bitcoin as donations.


  • Bitcoin developer Vitalik Buterin launched the Bitcoin Journal.
  • Within the standard tv present ‘The Good Spouse,’ blockchain and cryptocurrency had been talked about for the primary time. So, this was the primary introduction of blockchain to popular culture.


  • The market cap of Bitcoin surpassed $1 billion.
  • For the primary time, the value of BTC reached greater than $100.
  • Vitalik Buterin revealed a paper named “Ethereum Mission” to counsel that there might be a number of different purposes of blockchain aside from Bitcoin.


  • Firms like, The D Las Vegas Resort, and the well-known Gaming firm Zynga began accepting funds by Bitcoin.
  • PayPal introduced an integration of their methods with Bitcoin.
  • A gaggle of greater than 200 blockchain companies got here collectively as a bunch named R3 to seek out new methods for implementing blockchain in numerous sectors.
  • The Ethereum Mission of Buterin efficiently gained crowdfunding by the Preliminary Coin Providing (ICO) to lift greater than $18 million. This was probably the most important occasion in blockchain historical past because it opened up new avenues for blockchain know-how.


  • There are greater than 100,000 retailers accepting funds by BTC.
  • NASDAQ and San-Fransico blockchain firms get collectively to check the know-how to commerce shares in non-public firms.


  • IBM being the tech big, declares a blockchain technique for higher cloud-based enterprise options.
  • Blockchain and cryptocurrency get legalized in Japan.


  • The value of BTC reaches over $1000 for the primary time.
  • The market cap of cryptocurrency crosses $150 billion.
  • Dubai authorities introduced that they are going to be blockchain-powered by 2020.
  • BTC costs attain their all-time excessive at $19,783.21.
  • Jamie Dimon, the CEO of JP Morgan, acknowledged that he believes in a future with blockchain know-how. This gave the blockchain system a vote of confidence from the complete Wall Road.


  • Big banks like Barclays and Citi signed up for the blockchain-based banking platform developed by IBM.
  • Fb dedicated to beginning a blockchain group and hinting that there’s a risk of Fb’s personal cryptocurrency arising any time sooner or later.


  • The creation of Bakkt – a digital pockets firm for crypto buying and selling, was introduced by the New York Inventory Trade (NYSE).
  • The president of China, Ji Xinping, publicly embraced blockchain know-how whereas the Central Financial institution of China introduced that they had been engaged on creating their very own cryptocurrency.
  • The CEO of Twitter & Sq., Jack Dorsey, introduced that they might be hiring blockchain engineers in Sq. to work on some future plans within the crypto business.


  • Shopping for, promoting, and holding cryptocurrencies turned potential on PayPal.
  • “Sand Greenback” turned the world’s first central financial institution digital forex that the Bahamas launched.
  • By the top of 2020, Bitcoin was in a position to rise to the extent of $30,000.
  • In the course of the COVID-19 state of affairs, blockchain know-how turned crucial one for storing affected person info and analysis knowledge.

Blockchain is just not solely about Bitcoin. Although Bitcoin was the rationale behind the immense reputation of blockchain within the earlier years, now, there may be a lot extra to it. Presently, there are many purposes of blockchain know-how in numerous sectors.

Conclusion 👩‍🏫

Blockchain is a complicated know-how with a excessive stage of safety and transparency. With rising consciousness about blockchain, increasingly more organizations are adopting it throughout industries. Therefore, this know-how is more likely to keep and can discover many extra makes use of sooner or later.

You may additionally be inquisitive about studying: Cryptocurrency Mining for Freshmen.

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