Segregation of Duties (SoD) Explained in Simple Words

Segregation of Duties (SoD) is an important ingredient in a corporation’s threat administration methods.

A 2022 report by the Affiliation of Licensed Fraud Examiners (ACFE) highlights that corporations bear losses of roughly $1,783,000 to worker fraud per case.

This explains why fashionable companies have to have sustainable threat administration on this period of accelerating fraud, scams, and errors.

And SoD goals to regulate, handle, and even mitigate these dangers to have higher organizational controls with elevated security and consciousness.

On this article, I’ll talk about what SoD is, its significance, and different key terminologies related to it.

So, let’s start and learn to take again management!

What’s Segregation of Duties?

Segregation of Duties (SoD) is a vital idea of threat administration and inner controls of a corporation whereby a couple of particular person is made accountable to finish the totally different components of a process. It’s carried out to forestall data misuse, fraud, theft, and different security-related dangers.


The duty, although, might be accomplished by one particular person, but it surely’s damaged into components. This helps make sure that no single particular person has sole management of the duty or extreme controls, sufficient to misuse the management for unauthorized functions or fraudulent actions. As a substitute, it will likely be shared by not less than two people.

In the present day, SoD is carried out in numerous domains, similar to accounting, finance, payroll, administration, and so on. In politics, it turns into the separation of powers in democracies the place the federal government is split right into a judiciary, an govt, and a legislature.

SoD in Danger Administration

SoD works on the precept of shared tasks and that operating a corporation or enterprise should not be a single particular person’s job. You shouldn’t belief a single particular person to realize full management to carry out a process that will doubtlessly result in fraud, errors, or harm to the fame of your organization.

In truth, SoD is a crucial ingredient of threat administration and enterprise compliance with laws just like the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX). 


Segregating duties amongst a number of accountable personnel decrease the possibilities of an worker or a 3rd social gathering from:

  • Misusing organizational confidential data
  • Stealing funds
  • Falsifying data (like funds) to mislead stakeholders or inflating inventory costs
  • Launching a revenge marketing campaign after getting alleged mistreatment
  • Involving in company espionage

And in case you don’t make use of a secure technique like SoD, it may result in vital damages to your group by way of funds, compliance-based penalties, and model picture. That is why it’s advisable to implement SoD throughout an enterprise, from accounting and payroll to data expertise (IT) and cybersecurity departments.

Examples of SoD

Let’s take a look at a few of the examples the place you’ll be able to apply SoD.


In accounting, organizations can prohibit single individuals from gaining extreme energy to cover belongings and monetary errors.

SoD would require you to totally analyze all of the accounting roles in your group and segregate duties in order that the identical particular person can’t possess full management of a given perform. For instance, the identical particular person should not be allowed to obtain the cheques and document the acquired cheques.

IT and Cybersecurity 


SoD insurance policies can assist forestall entry management dangers within the IT division. You segregate workflow duties, guaranteeing the identical group or individuals should not given a number of entry permissions.

If a single particular person will get entry to energy past their duties, they will misuse it and expose data to an outsider or grant them entry permission. On the similar time, nobody else has any concept about it. 

This example may very well be catastrophic. For instance, the identical particular person should not be allowed to obtain alerts from safety programs in addition to handle the entry permissions of that system.

Compliance and Controls 

Implementing stable SOD methods can assist eradicate worker errors, intentional or unintentional. You can too catch fraudulent filings, if any. This manner, you’ll be able to hold your group secure from compliance violations. For instance, you need to make the identical particular person chargeable for submitting monetary data and auditing it.

Different Examples

The identical particular person shouldn’t be chargeable for:

  • Creating and approving requisitions
  • Creating and approving vendor invoices
  • Getting ready the bill and coming into gross sales transactions into the ledger
  • Paying salaries and hiring staff
  • Recording money acquired and creating credit score memos
  • Buying and selling shares and managing mergers and acquisitions
  • Organising consumers and approving requisitions or buy orders

Benefits of SoD

Among the benefits of making use of SoD in your group are:

#1. Fraud Prevention and Detection


Organizations have gotten victims of fraud greater than ever. It entails fraudulent actions like cheque tampering, money skimming, asset misappropriation, doc forgery, falsified receipts, invoices, accounting document errors, and extra.

With SoD, you’ll be able to guarantee no single particular person or group is chargeable for performing all of the capabilities of a given process. It will deter the chance of committing fraud and hiding it. Having extra eyes on a process means anybody can detect, report, and assist forestall exterior or inner fraud.

#2. Discount in Human Errors

In case you implement SoD accurately in your group, you’ll probably see a big discount in human errors and associated dangers in your vital monetary processes. It could actually contain errors like inadequate documentation of transactions, low manpower in accounting, information entry errors, careless audits, and so on. 

Using a number of people in vital transactions primarily will increase the possibility of a person noticing any error that occurred and resolving it.

#3. Improved Audits


Lowering the possibilities of dangers and errors will enhance the recordkeeping to your finance, payroll, accounting, IT, or cybersecurity division. SoD will assist make sure the data are organized correctly, eliminating points like duplication, late charges, compliance dangers, and so on.

This manner, you may be higher ready for audits, whether or not it’s annual, half-yearly, or quarterly. Additionally, you will really feel extra assured earlier than compliance with laws and keep away from penalties.

#4. Will increase Effectivity

Some might imagine that including extra roles will result in inefficiencies and better prices. Nevertheless, in case you plan SoD properly, it would promote effectivity. It’s since you are dividing a process into a number of sub-tasks, every carried out by an appropriate, specialised particular person with higher accuracy and velocity.

This not solely lowers dangers but in addition offers larger effectivity in comparison with the case the place a single particular person has to carry out your entire process. As well as, the price of damages to the corporate within the absence of SoD is far more than what you put money into hiring extra personnel.

Some SoD Terminologies

To know SoD extra, you need to be taught in regards to the following terminologies:

#1. SoD Conflicts

An SoD battle can rise when an individual acts towards the group’s curiosity and of their curiosity. This implies they’ve acquired a number of roles to be able to carry out a number of essential capabilities in a course of. Doing this might doubtlessly have an effect on the method integrity in addition to the corporate.


SoD conflicts can happen in numerous domains of a corporation, similar to Order to Money (O2C) or Buy to Pay (P2P). To mitigate SoD conflicts, you need to analyze and assess such incidents. Organizations should additionally implement stable controls and safeguard themselves from staff collaborating in unlawful actions.

A superb technique to forestall SoD conflicts may very well be making use of Function-Primarily based Entry Controls (RBAC) throughout your group. RBAC ensures that entry permissions and controls are given to customers primarily based on their roles and tasks within the group, no more than that.

On this, you’ll be able to assign a licensed particular person to investigate each position and entry permission assigned to them for each inter-role and intra-role SoD overlaps.  

Nevertheless, each battle doesn’t imply to trigger harm or lead to unlawful actions. A consumer may do it by chance, out of carelessness, or carry out a required perform for the corporate needing extra permissions.

That is why corporations ought to totally look at the case and assess their SoD violation insurance policies to make sure the conflicts don’t flip into fraud or criminal activity.

#2. SoD Violation

SoD violations can occur if a corporation’s worker exploits their assigned position and deliberately accesses data or performs a prohibited exercise. This implies they’re violating the group’s inner coverage or exterior laws.

Workers can conduct an SoD violation after they have gained management over a number of course of steps, exceeding the permitted steps. Subsequent, they misuse the entry for his or her profit.


Instance: An organization could make a coverage that the particular person hiring staff can’t additionally distribute paychecks. It’s as a result of in the event that they carry out each actions, they might leverage it for their very own profit and orchestrate fraud or criminal activity. Thus, this can flip into an SoD violation.

That was what an inner SoD violation seems like; let’s perceive how an exterior SoD violation can happen. For example, a senior decision-maker just like the CEO of a corporation indulges in manipulating monetary statements, violating SOX laws.

It could actually result in great fines for the group, and the worker might also serve a jail sentence. That is damaging for the group by way of fame and value.

To mitigate SoD violations, a corporation should monitor their violations and every worker’s exercise. They need to additionally hold updating their insurance policies with altering technological area.

#3. SoD Matrix

SoD matrix is an method that managers take to be able to scale back SoD complexities. It permits managers to differentiate totally different tasks, roles, and dangers in a corporation.

As well as, the SoD matrix can detect potential conflicts throughout the group and assist resolve them in time whereas offering safety from critical harm.

SoD matrices are robotically generated in fashionable corporations that depend on ERP software program. An SoD matrix generated relies on a consumer’s duties and roles outlined of their ERP software program.

Right here, every process ought to match a course of in a given transaction workflow to be able to group duties and roles, guaranteeing no consumer is permitted to execute a couple of step within the workflow.

Furthermore, an SoD matrix might be represented by a plot the place consumer roles are stored on each axes – X and Y that signify SoD conflicts. Additionally, it maps the duties and actions to roles in a workflow to be able to allow compliance groups to segregate incompatible tasks.

You’ll be able to both create an SoD matrix utilizing software program like MS Excel or manually on a paper sheet. They will also be created utilizing an ERP software.

Instance: Right here is an instance of how one can create an SoD matrix for payroll for an worker. You should utilize any signifier like sure/no, coloured flags or arrows, a tick mark, and so on. for roles and tasks. Let’s use Y/N within the following plot.

Course of Worker Onboarding staff Creating paychecks Clearing funds Managing advantages
Onboarding staff 1 Y N N N
Creating paychecks 2 N Y Y N
Clearing funds 3 N Y Y N
Managing advantages 4 N N N Y

Within the above chart, it’s proven that worker 2 has the authorization to create paychecks and clear them. So, they have to not change advantages or rent staff. In the event that they accomplish that, then an SoD battle could come up. Equally, worker 1 is chargeable for hiring new staff. Thus, they have to not create paychecks, handle advantages, or clear funds. Else, an SoD battle could happen.

How you can Implement SoD

So, in case you are considering of implementing SoD however are confused about the place to start out, listed below are the steps you’ll be able to comply with:

#1. Outline Organizational Processes and Insurance policies


To start with, you need to outline all the important thing organizational processes that staff are chargeable for. It may very well be primarily based in your group’s dimension and business sort. When you outline each course of and process, checklist your insurance policies as properly. Outline insurance policies to your inner staff, exterior distributors, and different entities you take care of.

For instance, in your HR division, you would possibly need to checklist duties like hiring and onboarding staff, creating advantages and compensation, clearing funds, recordkeeping, and so on. Equally, within the accounts division, you’ll be able to checklist duties like product supply affirmation, reviewing invoices, signing checks, paying invoices, and so on.

As well as, you will want to stipulate insurance policies that you’ve got made to your departments and staff. For instance, an worker issuing fee should not even be the one signing checks. One other instance of a coverage may very well be – the worker chargeable for promoting a product should not additionally verify its supply.  

#2. Create an SoD Matrix

After defining your duties and insurance policies, you need to create an SoD matrix to checklist all of the roles and duties. It would aid you perceive which staff are chargeable for what duties, and if there’s any risk of an SoD battle or violation.


The above chart will aid you create an SoD matrix to your group. However typically, it turns into powerful to detect SoD conflicts, particularly when the representations don’t aptly match the duties. For this, you’ll be able to take two approaches whereas creating an SoD matrix:

Clearly outline all of the duties and label every SoD battle: it creates a big matrix however provides higher accuracy in representing the duties and roles visually.

Omit some duties or group them: It would give you a condensed matrix, which is straightforward to investigate and give attention to SoD conflicts. Nevertheless, it may result in false positives and errors affecting the SoD outcomes and conflicts.

#3. Assign Duties

After you have detected all of the SoD conflicts, begin assigning duties and sub-tasks to staff, leveraging the idea of segregation of duties. In case you come throughout a situation the place you’ll be able to’t apply SoD, determine a stable approach to management and monitor the worker performing the duty to be able to deter any dangers.

#4. Handle and Evaluate


It’s very important to observe and evaluation your duties and roles to make sure SoD is properly carried out and there’s no potential battle or violation. And in case you detect any, handle your roles and duties by reassigning them once more. Proceed monitoring to forestall dangers.


Segregation of Duties (SoD) offers a wonderful approach to handle inner controls and forestall fraud and errors. It would assist guarantee organizational safety in order that nobody positive aspects extreme management, sufficient to trigger harm to your group by way of information leaks, fraud, or unlawful actions. So, implement SoD in your group and keep secure and vigilant. 

You might also discover some fraud detection and prevention instruments for on-line companies.

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